Can a Trustee be Removed from a Will?

In the realm of estate planning and administration, the role of a trustee holds significant importance. Trustees are entrusted with managing assets and ensuring the fulfilment of the wishes outlined in a will. However, what happens when circumstances change or conflicts arise, and there’s a need to remove a trustee from a will? Is it possible to oust a trustee, and if so, under what circumstances? Let’s delve into this complex yet crucial aspect of estate law.

Understanding Trustee Roles and Responsibilities

Before delving into the removal process, it’s essential to comprehend the duties of a trustee. Trustees are legally bound to act in the best interests of the beneficiaries and administer the trust according to the terms laid out in the will. Their responsibilities may include managing investments, distributing assets, and handling any legal or financial matters related to the trust.

Grounds for Removing a Trustee

While trustees are appointed to carry out their duties diligently, there are situations where their removal may become necessary. Some common grounds for seeking the removal of a trustee include:

  1. Breach of Fiduciary Duty: If a trustee fails to act in the best interests of the beneficiaries, breaches their fiduciary duty, or mismanages trust assets, it may warrant their removal.
  2. Conflict of Interest: Any situation where a trustee’s personal interests conflict with their obligations to the beneficiaries can lead to a conflict of interest and may justify their removal.
  3. Incapacity or Incompetence: If a trustee becomes mentally or physically incapable of fulfilling their duties, or if they demonstrate incompetence in managing the trust, it may necessitate their removal.
  4. Failure to Administer the Trust: Persistent failure to properly administer the trust, including failure to make distributions or maintain accurate records, may provide grounds for removal.

The Legal Process of Removing a Trustee

The process of removing a trustee typically involves petitioning the court. Beneficiaries or co-trustees can file a petition with the court outlining the reasons for seeking the trustee’s removal. The court will then evaluate the circumstances and determine whether removal is justified.

It’s important to note that the court’s decision will be based on whether the trustee’s actions or conduct meet the legal criteria for removal as outlined in trust law. Additionally, the court may appoint a successor trustee to ensure the continued administration of the trust.


In summary, while trustees play a vital role in the execution of a will and the administration of trusts, there are circumstances where their removal may be necessary. Whether due to breach of fiduciary duty, conflict of interest, incapacity, or incompetence, beneficiaries have recourse to seek the removal of a trustee through legal channels.

If you find yourself in a situation where you believe a trustee should be removed from a will, it’s essential to consult with one of our experienced legal professionals who specialise in estate law. They can provide guidance on the appropriate steps to take and help navigate the complexities of trustee removal proceedings. Remember, ensuring the proper administration of a trust is paramount to preserving the wishes and interests of the beneficiaries outlined in the will.

If you have any questions in relation to Wills, please call Jo on 0161 850 9911.

Exploring the Proposed Rent Changes in Wales: Implications and Insights



In recent times, the landscape of rental housing in Wales has been a topic of significant discussion, as proposed rent changes could potentially reshape the rental market and impact both landlords and tenants alike. The Welsh government’s efforts to address housing affordability, tenant security, and the overall rental experience have led to a series of proposed changes that warrant a closer examination. In this blog, we will delve into the key aspects of these proposed rent changes, their potential implications, and the broader context within which they are being considered.


The Proposed Changes: An Overview


The proposed rent changes in Wales are primarily aimed at enhancing the rental experience for tenants while also maintaining a fair and reasonable environment for landlords. These changes are driven by a desire to strike a balance between affordability, stability, and quality of housing. Some of the key aspects of the proposed changes include:


  1. Rent Controls:** The Welsh government is considering the implementation of rent controls to prevent excessive rent increases and provide tenants with more stability. This could involve capping the amount by which landlords can increase rents each year.


  1. Ending “No-Fault” Evictions: The proposed changes also include ending the practice of “no-fault” evictions, where landlords can evict tenants without providing a specific reason. Instead, landlords would need to provide a legitimate reason for eviction, which could improve tenant security.


  1. Longer Tenancies: There’s a proposal to introduce longer minimum tenancy durations to provide tenants with greater security and stability in their housing arrangements. This could be particularly beneficial for families and individuals seeking long-term accommodation.


Implications and Considerations


While the proposed changes aim to improve the rental experience in Wales, they also raise several important considerations:


  1. **Balancing Interests:** Striking a balance between the interests of tenants and landlords is crucial. Rent controls, for instance, can help protect tenants from sudden rent hikes, but they should also consider landlords’ ability to cover maintenance costs and mortgage payments.


  1. Supply and Demand: Rent controls might impact the supply of rental properties if landlords find it financially unviable to continue renting out their properties. This could potentially lead to a decrease in the availability of rental housing.


  1. Investor Confidence: The proposed changes could influence investor confidence in the rental market. If landlords perceive too much risk due to limitations on rental income and eviction flexibility, they might reconsider investing in rental properties.


  1. Rent Quality and Maintenance: While longer tenancies provide tenants with stability, they could also potentially lead to neglect of property maintenance, as landlords might feel less urgency to address issues promptly.


The Broader Context


To better understand these proposed changes, it’s important to consider the broader context:


  1. Affordability Concerns: Housing affordability has been a significant issue in Wales, and the government’s initiatives reflect a commitment to address this concern.


  1. Tenant Security: Enhancing tenant security by ending “no-fault” evictions and promoting longer tenancies aligns with the goal of creating stable living conditions.


  1. Legal Framework: The proposed changes would require an update to the legal framework governing rental agreements and eviction processes, ensuring proper implementation and enforcement.




The proposed rent changes in Wales represent a significant step toward reshaping the rental landscape in the country. By addressing concerns of affordability, tenant security, and rental quality, the Welsh government aims to create a fair and stable environment for both tenants and landlords. However, the success of these changes will depend on careful implementation, monitoring, and continuous evaluation to ensure that they achieve their intended outcomes without unintended consequences. As discussions continue, it’s essential for stakeholders to engage in a constructive dialogue that considers the interests of all parties involved.


If you have any concerns about a property, please call our property department on 0161 850 9911.

The Ins and Outs of 100% Mortgages



Buying a home is a significant milestone in one’s life, but it often comes with a hefty price tag. Many aspiring homeowners find it challenging to accumulate a substantial deposit for their dream home. This is where 100% mortgages come into play, offering an alternative path to homeownership. In this blog, we’ll explore the concept of 100% mortgages, how they work, their advantages, disadvantages, and whether they are a viable option for prospective homebuyers.


What Are 100% Mortgages?


A 100% mortgage, as the name suggests, allows you to borrow the entire purchase price of your home without the need to provide a deposit. Traditionally, lenders require borrowers to contribute a deposit, typically ranging from 5% to 20% of the property’s value, to secure a mortgage. However, with a 100% mortgage, you can buy a home with no deposit, which may seem like an attractive proposition, especially for first-time buyers.


How Do 100% Mortgages Work?


  1. Guarantor Mortgages: One common form of 100% mortgage in the UK is the guarantor mortgage. In this arrangement, a family member, usually a parent, acts as a guarantor for the loan. They offer their property or savings as collateral, ensuring the lender has a safety net in case the borrower defaults on payments.


  1. Joint Borrower Sole Proprietor Mortgages: Another option is the joint borrower sole proprietor mortgage. In this scenario, a family member joins the mortgage application with the borrower, typically to increase the borrower’s income and improve their affordability. However, the co-borrower does not have any ownership rights to the property.


  1. Specialist Lenders: Some specialist lenders offer 100% mortgages, but they often come with higher interest rates and stricter terms compared to traditional mortgages. These lenders may also require additional collateral or charge higher fees.


Advantages of 100% Mortgages


  1. No Deposit Required: The most significant advantage of a 100% mortgage is that it allows buyers to enter the property market without having to save for a deposit, which can take years.


  1. Access to the Property Market: It provides an opportunity for first-time buyers and those with limited savings to get on the property ladder sooner rather than later.


  1. Family Assistance: It enables families to support their children or relatives in purchasing their first home by acting as guarantors or co-borrowers.


Disadvantages of 100% Mortgages


  1. Higher Interest Rates: 100% mortgages often come with higher interest rates compared to traditional mortgages, which can lead to higher overall costs over the life of the loan.


  1. Limited Lender Options: Not all lenders offer 100% mortgages, and those that do may have stricter eligibility criteria.


  1. Risk to Guarantors: In guarantor mortgages, the guarantor’s property or savings are at risk if the borrower defaults, potentially putting their financial stability in jeopardy.


  1. Less Competitive Terms: Borrowers with a larger deposit typically receive better interest rates and more favourable mortgage terms.


Are 100% Mortgages a Viable Option?


While 100% mortgages can be a lifeline for some aspiring homeowners, they are not without risks and limitations. It’s crucial to carefully consider your financial situation and long-term goals before opting for a 100% mortgage. Here are some key factors to consider:


  1. Affordability: Can you comfortably make the mortgage payments, including interest, insurance, and property taxes, without straining your finances?


  1. Future Financial Stability: Assess your job security and future income prospects. A sudden change in circumstances could make it challenging to meet mortgage obligations.


  1. Alternatives: Explore other homeownership schemes and government-backed initiatives like Help to Buy, Shared Ownership, or the First Homes scheme, which might offer more favorable terms.


  1. Seek Professional Advice: Consult with a mortgage advisor or financial expert to assess your suitability for a 100% mortgage and explore all available options.




100% mortgages can be a valuable tool for prospective homebuyers who lack the funds for a traditional deposit. However, they come with their own set of challenges and risks. It’s essential to thoroughly research and consider your financial situation, long-term goals, and available alternatives before committing to a 100% mortgage. Make informed decisions to ensure that home ownership is a rewarding and sustainable journey for you and your family.


Whilst we cannot offer mortgage advice, please call our property department with any other concerns you may have on 0161 850 9911.

The Great Debate: Pets in Flats – What Are Your Rights?



The question of whether purchasers or tenants can demand that pets be allowed to live with them in their flats is a topic that has sparked heated discussions and legal debates for quite some time. While the UK is known for its love of animals, it’s also a nation with a significant number of people living in flats or apartments, where pet policies can vary greatly. In this blog, we’ll explore the rights and responsibilities of both property owners and renters when it comes to keeping pets in flats.


Understanding the Landlord-Tenant Dynamic


Before diving into the specifics of pet policies, it’s crucial to understand the legal relationship between landlords and tenants. Landlords have a legal right to set the terms and conditions of their rental agreements, which can include pet policies. Conversely, tenants have rights as well, including the right to a quiet and peaceful enjoyment of their rented property.


Pet Policies in Rental Agreements


The inclusion of pet policies in rental agreements is a common practice. Landlords have the right to impose restrictions on whether pets are allowed in their flats. These restrictions can range from a complete ban on pets to more lenient policies that specify the types and sizes of pets that are permitted.


However, it’s important to note that since January 2021, the UK government has amended its model tenancy agreement to make it easier for renters with pets to find suitable accommodation. These changes encourage landlords to consider allowing pets in their properties, provided that tenants meet certain criteria and agree to adhere to responsible pet ownership guidelines.


Reasonable Pet Policies


A reasonable pet policy should strike a balance between the rights of landlords to protect their property and the rights of tenants to enjoy the companionship of their pets. A reasonable pet policy might include the following considerations:


  1. Pet Deposit: Landlords can ask for an additional security deposit to cover potential damages caused by pets. This deposit should be refundable if no damage occurs.


  1. Pet References: Tenants may be asked to provide references from previous landlords or neighbours to vouch for their responsible pet ownership.


  1. Pet Size and Breed Restrictions: Some landlords may have size or breed restrictions on the pets they allow in their flats.


  1. Responsible Ownership: Tenants should agree to clean up after their pets, prevent excessive noise, and ensure that their pets do not cause a nuisance to neighbours.


  1. Pet Clauses: Specific pet-related clauses should be added to the tenancy agreement, outlining the rights and responsibilities of both parties regarding pets.


Challenging a No-Pet Policy


If a flat has a strict “no-pets” policy, tenants do have some options to challenge it:


  1. Negotiate: Tenants can try to negotiate with the landlord to allow a pet, especially if they have a well-behaved animal and are willing to comply with any reasonable conditions.


  1. Check Local Laws: In some cases, local housing laws may override a “no-pets” policy, so it’s essential to research the specific regulations in your area.


  1. Appeal to a Tribunal: If all else fails, tenants can appeal to a tribunal or court to challenge an unreasonable “no-pets” policy, especially if they believe it infringes on their rights to quiet enjoyment and a family life.




The issue of whether purchasers or tenants can demand pets be allowed to live with them in their flats involves a delicate balance between the rights and responsibilities of landlords and tenants. While landlords have the right to set pet policies, recent changes in tenancy agreements encourage a more lenient approach, making it easier for responsible pet owners to find suitable accommodation. Communication, negotiation, and awareness of local laws are key factors in resolving any disputes regarding pet policies in flats. Ultimately, finding a middle ground that respects the interests of both landlords and tenants can lead to more harmonious living environments for everyone involved.

Landlords and Major Works

The most recent ruling from the Upper Tribunal offers valuable insights into the application of the Building Safety Act 2022 concerning recoverable service charges. Specifically, it pertains to instances where there’s a request to bypass the section 20 consultation procedure for urgent major works.

Usually, if a freeholder landlord plans works that will cost a leaseholder more than £250, they must adhere to the consultation process outlined in section 20 of the Landlord and Tenant Act 1985 (LTA 1985). However, there’s an exception for urgent works, particularly those related to occupant safety, allowing landlords to apply to the First-tier Tribunal (FtT) for dispensation from the formalities. This exception now includes urgent works under the Building Safety Act 2022 (BSA 2022).

In the case of Adriatic Land 5 Ltd v Long Leaseholders at Hippersley Point [2023] UKUT 271 (LC), the landlord sought dispensation for urgent safety repairs at Hippersley Point. While unconditional dispensation was granted, a condition under section 20C restricted the recovery of application costs from service charges. Despite the landlord’s appeal and subsequent review, the First-tier Tribunal upheld this condition through a costs order, essentially preventing the recovery of application costs via service charges.

The appeal in the Upper Tribunal centered on two key points:

  1. Whether the FtT had the authority to impose a costs condition concerning service charges.
  2. The relevance of Paragraph 9 of Schedule 8 to the BSA 2022, which had just come into effect before the review decision.

The Upper Tribunal ruled that the FtT had erred in its decision by imposing the costs order without input from the involved parties. Furthermore, it emphasized that Paragraph 9 of Schedule 8 in the BSA 2022 outlined that leaseholders aren’t liable for service charge costs related to legal or professional services incurred due to relevant defects after June 28, 2022. This provision protects leaseholders from incurring costs for dispensation applications related to building safety works under the BSA 2022.

Essentially, this ruling signifies a shift in the liability for service charge costs incurred after June 28, 2022, exempting qualifying leaseholders from these expenses. It’s a critical consideration for landlords undertaking urgent property works, as it establishes a cut off for recoverable legal costs from service charges post-June 28, 2022.


If you have any concerns regarding the above, please feel free to contact our property department.

A Guide for Leaseholders: Dealing with RAAC Properties



Leasehold property ownership has long been a common way to own a home, especially in urban areas. However, many leaseholders face challenges and uncertainties when it comes to properties built using the Rapidly Applied Affordable Construction (RAAC) method. RAAC is a construction technique that was popular for its speed and cost-effectiveness but has since raised concerns due to issues related to building quality and safety. In this blog, we will discuss what leaseholders can do if their property was built using RAAC and what steps they can take to address potential issues.


Understanding RAAC Construction


RAAC construction is characterized by its rapid assembly of pre-fabricated components, often using lightweight materials. While this approach can deliver homes quickly and at a lower cost, it has also been associated with certain problems such as structural defects, inadequate insulation, and issues with fire safety.


Challenges for Leaseholders


Leaseholders of RAAC properties may face several challenges, including:


  1. Structural Concerns: RAAC properties may be more susceptible to structural issues, such as cracks in walls, due to the construction method. These issues can be costly to repair and may impact the property’s value.


  1. Fire Safety: Some RAAC properties have been found to have inadequate fire safety measures, which can pose significant risks to residents.


  1. Energy Efficiency: RAAC properties may not meet modern energy efficiency standards, resulting in higher energy bills for leaseholders.


  1. Warranty Issues: RAAC builders and developers may no longer be in business, making it difficult to claim on warranties for defects.


Steps for Leaseholders


If you are a leaseholder of an RAAC property, there are several steps you can take to address these challenges:


  1. Review Your Lease Agreement: Start by carefully reviewing your lease agreement to understand your rights and responsibilities as a leaseholder. Pay attention to any clauses related to maintenance and repairs.


  1. Join a Leaseholder Association: Consider joining or forming a leaseholder association with fellow residents. This can provide collective bargaining power and support in dealing with property-related issues.


  1. Seek Legal Advice: If you encounter structural defects, fire safety concerns, or other issues, consult one of our solicitors who specializes in property law. We can help you understand your legal options and potential claims against developers or builders.


  1. Engage with Local Authorities: Contact your local council and fire authority to report any concerns about fire safety or building quality. They may conduct inspections and take action if necessary.


  1. Energy Efficiency Improvements: Investigate energy-efficient upgrades that can improve the performance of your RAAC property. This may include better insulation, efficient heating systems, and double-glazed windows.


  1. Explore the Building Safety Act: Stay informed about developments in building safety legislation, such as the Building Safety Act. This legislation aims to improve building safety standards and may provide additional protections for leaseholders of RAAC properties.


  1. Consider Leasehold Reform: Keep an eye on proposed leasehold reform initiatives, which could change the legal framework for leasehold properties. These reforms may offer solutions for leaseholders facing RAAC-related challenges.




Leaseholders of RAAC properties face unique challenges related to building quality, safety, and energy efficiency. However, by understanding their rights, seeking legal advice, and engaging with local authorities and community organizations, leaseholders can take steps to address these issues. It is essential for leaseholders to stay informed about changes in legislation and actively advocate for their rights and the safety of their homes.


Please call us with any concerns you may have on 0161 850 9911.